This article provides a summary of Oregon statutes and cases related to noncompetition agreements (with links).
As described below, Oregon law imposes a number of prerequisites on noncompetes, notably including a pay requirement equal to at least $97,311 per year (as of 11/15/19 -- the current figure may vary) as described below. Employees with "voidable" noncompetes may be required to take proactive measures to cancel these agreements.
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ORS 653.295 is Oregon's general statute governing noncompetes in the employment context. It only applies to agreements between an employer and employee. See ORS 653.295(3) (applicable "only to noncompetition agreements made in the context of an employment relationship or contract and not otherwise.").
ORS 653.295 regulates noncompete agreements by imposing certain prerequisites discussed below. The statute makes noncompliant agreements "voidable" and unenforceable by Oregon courts. The "void
ORS 653.295 does not necessarily apply to other restrictive covenants like nonsolicitation agreements, agreements not to transact business with customers, confidentiality agreements, or proprietary information agreements. See e.g., ORS 653.295(4)(b) (exempting "covenant[s] not to solicit employees of the employer or solicit or transact business with customers of the employer."); But see,
Oregon limits the length of non-competes. As of this article's last update, non-competes under Oregon law may not exceed 18 months from the employee's termination and the remainder of any term in excess of that period may not be enforced by courts of the state. ORS 653.295(2). This statute previously contained a two-year limit, which Oregon lawmakers reduced to 18 months in 2016.
The prerequisites for an enforceable non-compete under ORS 653.295 are:
Employers must inform employees in a written employment offer received by the employee at least two weeks before the first day of the employee's employment that a noncompetition agreement is required as a condition of employment. ORS 653.295(1)(a).
Alternatively, an employer may impose a noncompete upon a subsequent bona fide advancement of the employee.
2. Exempt Status
Non-competes are voidable and unenforceable by Oregon courts unless the employee is:
An individual engaged in administrative, executive or professional work who:(a) Performs predominantly intellectual, managerial or creative tasks;
(b) Exercises discretion and independent judgment; and
(c) Earns a salary and is paid on a salary basis.
ORS 653.295(1)(b)ORS 653.020(3); ORS 653.295(1)(b).
ORS 653.020(3) is the same statute that exempts employers from paying overtime and minimum wage to covered employees. For a closer look at the meaning of "administrative, executive or professional work," see OAR 839-020-0050(1)-(3). Note that OAR 839-020-0050(4) excludes outside sales persons from the definition of "administrative, executive or professional work." Instead, ORS 653.020(6) includes "[a]n individual engaged in the capacity of an outside salesperson" under a separate exempt category.
3. Protectable Interest
An employer must have a protectable interest. This means the employee must have access to trade secrets, competitively sensitive confidential business or professional information, or is employed as on-air talent by an employer in the broadcasting business. ORS 653.295(4)(b).
In practice, employers frequently attempt to establish a protectable interest through an employee's access to business information contained in various locations and contexts. Modern employees often have broad access to employer information due to increased technology in workplaces. However, if employers provide sweeping systems access to all employees, it raises a question of whether the information to which employees have access is truly "sensitive" or "confidential." (e.g., how confidential is information if an employer provides indiscriminate access and, in some cases, even prevents employees from disconnecting from it?). Employers, employees, and courts will continue to grapple with issues related to protectable interests as long as employers continue implementing technology without a complete understanding of issues like privacy and access.
Employers also frequently point to relationships as a protectable interest. The Oregon Court of Appeals has held that relationships may be a protectable interest where "the nature of the contact is such that there is a substantial risk that the employee may be able to divert all or part of the customer’s business.”
Recent cases have demonstrated the limited breadth of an employer's protected interest. For example, the Oregon Court of Appeals in
[I]f [Oregon law] provided an exception for agreements that prohibited soliciting or transacting business with parties with little or no ongoing relationship with the employer, then that exception would allow for agreements that inhibit competition to much the same degree as blanket agreements not to compete
4. Income Requirement
Employees must, at the time of their termination, earn an annual gross salary and commissions in excess of the median family income for a four-person family as determined by the United States Census Bureau for the most recent year available at the time of the employee's termination.
Unfortunately, this number is not as easy to find as one might expect. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the current median income of a family of four in Oregon appears to be
Here you should be able to click on the "Geographies" tab at the top to specify "Oregon" which, as of November 2019, provides a figure of
5. Post-Termination Notice.
Effective January 20, 2020, HB 2992 will require employers, "[w]ithin 30 days after the date of the termination of the employee’s employment, [to] provid[e] a signed, written copy of the terms of the noncompetition agreement to the employee." The effect of this new statute is to be determined. However, beginning January 20, 2020, Oregonians should expect a notable increase in post-termination notices from employers regarding noncompetition agreements.
ORS 653.295 provides a number of exceptions and carveouts.
First, as noted above, the restrictions in ORS 653.295(1) and (2) only apply "to noncompetition agreements made in the context of an employment relationship or contract and not otherwise." This can be an important issue for alternate work arrangements, such as independent contractors, part owners, and other business contracts. It also remains unclear exactly how courts are required to deal with situations such as noncompetes in employee severance agreements where a noncompete is offered as term of a post-employment waiver of claims related to an individual's former employment.
Another carve-out from ORS 653.295(1) and (2) is for noncompetes tethered to bonus restriction agreements. ORS 653.295(4)(a). The definition of a bonus restriction agreement and the conditions for imposing an enforceable noncompete in the context of a bonus restriction agreement are described in ORS 653.295(7)(a).
There is also an exception for "covenant[s] not to solicit employees of the employer or solicit or transact business with customers of the employer." ORS 653.295(4)(b). This subsection means that non-solicitation agreements and agreements not to transact business with an employer's customers are not subject to the time limitations and prerequisites of ORS 653.295(1) or (2). But see,
ORS 653.295(5) allows employers "to protect trade secrets or other proprietary information by injunction or any other lawful means under other applicable laws." Therefore, even if a noncompete is voidable under ORS 653.295, subsection (5) allows employers to pursue actions for trade secret misappropriation and enforce other restrictive covenants and statutory, contractual, or common law principles protecting an employer's proprietary information.
Finally, even if an employer does not meet the exempt employee and salary requirements described above, ORS 653.295(6) allows a court to enforce a noncompetition agreement where the employer compensates the employee during the restricted period in an amount equal to the greater of: (1) 50% of the employee’s annual gross base salary and commissions at the time of the employee’s termination, or (2) 50% of the median family income for a four-person family as determined by the most recent U.S. Census Bureau at the time of the employee’s termination. ORS 653.295(6).
In most cases, employers seeking to take advantage of this provision will specify in advance (i.e., in the employee's contract) that they will compensate the employee during the restricted period. In cases where an employer does not specify upfront, the timing and other details of an employer and employee's actions can become critical. Oregon appellate courts have not yet had occasion to interpret the parameters of the current version of ORS 653.295(6)(the statute was renumbered in 2007, see Oregon Senate Bill 248 (2007)). For example, there are no cases explaining how the law would apply where an employee voids a voidable noncompete and an employer subsequently offers to pay the employee in accordance with ORS 653.295(6) in an attempt to enforce the noncompete.
In addition to Oregon's general noncompete statute, noncompetes are also subject to common law requirements for contracts that restrain trade. The relevant test evaluates whether an agreement is: (1) “partial or restricted” in scope and extent, (2) based on good consideration, and (3) reasonable. See
1. Partial or Restricted
Noncompetes that fail to describe prohibited post-employment activities with sufficient particularity and specificity are at risk of failing the first element of the common law test. Likewise, noncompetes that prohibit more than reasonably necessary to protect an employer's interests may be either partially or completely unenforceable. Geographic and time restrictions must be reasonable given the particular circumstances of each case. The test for reasonableness is whether the time and geographic scope of a noncompete is reasonably tailored to protect an employer's legitimate protectable interests. The employer's interests are also balanced against a policy favoring an employee's right to earn a living.
These considerations depend heavily on both the nature of an employer's business and the particular employment relationship. If a noncompete provides no geographical or time limitations, Oregon courts may (but are not necessarily required to) insert reasonable limitations based on the facts and circumstances of the particular case.
The second element of the common law test is a matter of basic contract law. Restrictive covenants, like any other contractual term, must be supported by consideration - that is, a payment, benefit or reward. If an employer fails to provide consideration in exchange for a noncompete, it may be unenforceable.
In the context of an employment relationship, this element is usually satisfied by an employer allowing the employee to work and earn wages, benefits, and experience from the employer. Many noncompetes contain express recitals confirming that the employer is employing the employee and providing the employee access to the employer's business information in exchange for the employee's promise not to compete. These recitals help remove any ambiguity about valid consideration.
3. Reasonableness Balancing Test
The final element in the common law test for noncompete agreements is a reasonableness balancing test. The reasonableness test involves two prongs. First, the terms of the noncompete may not be broader than necessary to protect the employer's interest. This prong overlaps with the first element for a valid restraint of trade ("partial or restricted" scope). Second, the hardship to an employee and the likely injury to the public cannot outweigh an employer's need for a non-compete.
The first prong requires a close look at an employer's interests. As a threshold matter, an employer must actually have a protectable interest, such as confidential information. For example, knowledge of product launch dates, product allocation strategies, new product development, product orders six months in advance and strategic sales plans have all been deemed protectable interests where such information is not general knowledge in the industry. Business goodwill may also constitute a protectable interest depending on the nature of an employer's business.
The second prong involves an examination of the hardship and potential injury to the employee and the public and a comparison of those potential hardships and injuries with the employer's interests. Recent case law indicates that in many situations, the potential hardship and injury to the employee and public must be grave in order to outweigh an employer's interest. See, e.g.,
Beyond Oregon's statutory and common law limitations on noncompetes, there are a variety of important practical concerns.
1. Is an Agreement Actually a Noncompete?
Determining whether a given agreement is actually a noncompete will depend on the contract's language. For example, consider nonsolicitation agreements. Depending on the particular agreement, some nonsolicitation agreements merely limit an employee from actively pursuing a former employer's customers. Other nonsolication agreements, however, go well beyond just the active pursuit of former customers.
For example, in the case of
Other examples of restrictive contractual agreements that may have competitive implications without actually being a "noncompete" under Oregon law include confidentiality agreements, nondisclosure agreements, proprietary information agreements, and data security policies. However, even where these agreements may limit an employee's ability to compete after employment, one should not assume they will be interpreted and treated as noncompetition agreements.
2. Notice Requirements
Some noncompetes require an employee to (a) notify the former employer of any new employment so the former employer can assess any contractual implications, and (b) to notify any new employer of the noncompete. The practical effects, enforceability of these terms, and appropriate strategies related to these clauses will vary on a case-by-case basis.
3. Prohibited Employer Contact
In many cases, a former employer's noncompete enforcement efforts will include attempts to prohibit the employee from working with a new employer. Former employers who inappropriately contact new employers may face liability for doing so. See e.g.,
4. Attorneys' Fees
Noncompetition agreements and the employment contracts in which they are contained frequently include terms allowing the prevailing party to recover attorney fees. Parties to contracts with such terms must be extremely careful because the costs of paying a successful opponent's attorneys' fees can be substantial.
5. Choice of Law
Contracts will often contain choice of law provisions that attempt to apply the law of a particular state. The application of these clauses will vary depending on the facts of a given case. However, employees and employers should see ORS 15.320(3), which specifies that Oregon law will apply to "[a] contract of employment for services to be rendered primarily in Oregon by a resident of Oregon."